Annotated Bibliography 8

Ensminger, D. C. (2004). Factors Contributing to the Successful Implementation of Technology Innovations. Educational technology & society, 7(3)


This paper describes the results of a study into the conditions that facilitate the implementation of instructional innovations. Specifically the factors contributing to the successful implementation of technology innovations. the primary purpose of the study was to determine if there are underlying relationships between Donald P. Ely’s Eight conditions that facilitate implementation.

Ely’s eight conditions are:

  • Dissatisfaction with the status Quo
  • Adequate Time
  • Resources
  • Knowledge and Skills
  • Rewards and Incentives
  • Participation
  • Commitment
  • Leadership

The Study refers to the ADDIE Model of instructional design: ADDIE – Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation.
While also referencing several different Change Theories noting that “Change theory isn’t one unified, universally accepted theory, but rather a broad family of theories.” (p. 61). The theories mentioned include: Rodgers’ Innovation-Decision Process, Havelock and Zlotolow’s CREATER Model, Hall and Hord’s Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), User Oriented Instructional Development (UOID) and other non-attributed theories.

The study found that four factors emerged from the data these were:

  •  Managed Change – Participants wanted Management to play an active role in the change process.
  •  Performance Efficacy – Individuals believed that they would be successful in using the innovation either due to preexisting skill sets, or confidence they would be able to learn the skills if provided time.
  •  External Rewards – Individuals were more likely to participate in the implementation process if they receive some recognition or reward for using the innovation.
  •  Resources – Simply participants wanter to know that the equipment, finances, personnel and other resources were in place and easily accessible before implementing the given innovation.


While this study does not directly relate to my research topic, it provides some interesting insight into different change models (CREATOR, UOID, CBAM) and how they can be used to determine wether an implementation will be successful or not. An interesting factor that has come up in several different readings now is the idea that “External reward” is important for successful change within educational institutions. While this is not something that can be easily offered by a single institution within New Zealand I believe it is something the Ministry of Education could.


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